Applied Antisense Oligonucleotide Technology

Applied Antisense Oligonucleotide Technology PDF Author: Cy A. Stein
Publisher: Wiley-Liss
ISBN:
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 556

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Book Description
Applied Antisense Oligonucleotide Technology provides the basic concepts as well as the practical concerns associated with the use of antisense oligonucleotides to modify gene expression. Chapters include oligonucleotide chemistry, DNA triplex formation, delivery mechanisms, pharmocokinetics, toxicity, oligonucleotides.

Interplay of Polymer and Oligonucleotide Properties in the Nature of Antisense Effects

Interplay of Polymer and Oligonucleotide Properties in the Nature of Antisense Effects PDF Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Antisense nucleic acids
Languages : en
Pages : 142

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Book Description
Antisense oligonucleotides can be utilized to silence the expression of a target gene via sequence-specific complementary base pairing. Antisense technology is applied as a basic research tool and is being developed therapeutically for a wide range of indications including cancer, inflammatory diseases and viral diseases. Its widespread application is impeded by the poor cellular delivery of oligonucleotides (ONs). Rational design of carriers for enhanced ON delivery demands a better understanding of the role of the vector on the extent and time course of antisense effects. This work highlights the interplay of polymer and ON properties in the nature of polymer mediated antisense responses. First, we demonstrate that ON structure exerts a significant influence on the strength of ON binding to, and dissociation from, the cationic polymer, poly-L-lysine. The finding implicates secondary structure as a relevant design parameter for antisense ONs and stresses the need for a comprehensive evaluation of ON-polymer structure-activity effects. Next, using well-characterized cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI), we focus on understanding the effects of polymer molecular weight (MW) and ON backbone chemistry on antisense activity. We measure physico-chemical properties of complexes between PEI and phosphodiester and phosphorothioate backbone ONs, and evaluate their ability to deliver ONs to cells, leading to an antisense response. Our key finding is that the antisense activity is not determined solely by PEI MW or by ON chemistry, but rather by the interplay of both factors. Of particular importance is the strength of interactions between the carrier and the ON, which determines the rate at which the ONs are delivered intracellularly. Finally, we utilize the chemistry of the ONs as a means to influence the strength of interactions between PEI and ONs, and hence control the final antisense response. We show that it is possible to improve dramatically the efficiency of lower PEI MWs as ON carriers by manipulating the degree of phosphorothioate substitution in the ON chemistry. By correlating the PEI MW & ON chemistry with the observed antisense effects, we draw insightful structure-property relationships that will aid the rational design of ON carriers.

Modulating Gene Expression by Antisense Oligonucleotides to Understand Neural Functioning

Modulating Gene Expression by Antisense Oligonucleotides to Understand Neural Functioning PDF Author: Margaret M. McCarthy
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461549337
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 172

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Book Description
When first introduced, antisense oligonucleotides were hailed as the long awaited magic bullet that would provide an unprecedented level of specificity in controlling gene expression. Following this initial enthusiasm, antisense oligonucleotides have been maligned as nonspecific, toxic, and essentially useless. However, application of antisense oligonucleotide technology in the nervous system stands apart from the use of this technique in peripheral systems, largely because of its enormous success. The source of this success remains a matter of some controversy. Modulating Gene Expression by Antisense Oligonucleotides to Understand Neural Functioning addresses the origins of that controversy and determines whether the nervous system is a privileged site for antisense oligonucleotide action and not subject to the same vagaries and pitfalls as non-neuronal systems. Modulating Gene Expression by Antisense Oligonucleotides to Understand Neural Functioning contains chapters by experts in the field that focus on the use of this technique in a variety of behavioral systems, as well as rapid and nonspecific effects and the uptake and metabolism of antisense oligonucleotides by the nervous system. Modulating Gene Expression by Antisense Oligonucleotides to Understand Neural Functioning features: experts in the field reporting on the use of antisense oligonucleotide technology in a variety of behavioral systems, including pain control, circadian rhythms, ingestion and control of water balance, and reproductive behaviors; the novel use of plasmids to express antisense RNA in the nervous system; the biodistribution and metabolism of antisense oligonucleotides in the nervous system; rapid and unusual effects; and non-specific effects.

Antisense Drug Technology

Antisense Drug Technology PDF Author: Stanley T. Crooke
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439832501
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 848

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Book Description
Extensively revised and updated, Antisense Drug Technology: Principles, Strategies, and Applications, Second Edition reflects the logarithmic progress made in the past four years of oligonucleotide-based therapies, and, in particular, antisense therapeutics and research. Interpreting lessons learned from the clinical trials of first generati

Pharmaceutical Aspects of Oligonucleotides

Pharmaceutical Aspects of Oligonucleotides PDF Author: Patrick Couvreur
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0203305663
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 336

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Book Description
Oligonucleotides diffuse poorly through biological barriers, including cell membranes. They are also rapidly degraded in vivo by nucleuses. Aiming to improve the administration of compounds, the book studies the development of nucleotide chemistry.

Antisense Elements (genetics) Research Focus

Antisense Elements (genetics) Research Focus PDF Author: A. G. Hernandes
Publisher: Nova Publishers
ISBN: 9781600214912
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 246

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Book Description
Antisense molecules interact with complementary strands of nucleic acids, modifying expression of genes. Some regions within a double strand of DNA code for genes, which are usually instructions specifying the order of amino acids in a protein along with regulatory sequences, splicing sites, non-coding introns and other complicating details. For a cell to use this information, one strand of the DNA serves as a template for the synthesis of a complementary strand of RNA. The template DNA strand is called the transcribed strand with antisense sequence and the mRNA transcript is said to be sense sequence (the complement of antisense). Because the DNA is double-stranded, the strand complementary to the antisense sequence is called non-transcribed strand and has the same sense sequence as the mRNA transcript (though T bases in DNA are substituted with U bases in RNA). This book presents important new research from around the world in this field.

Antisense Technology, Part B: Applications

Antisense Technology, Part B: Applications PDF Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080496717
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 647

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Book Description
Antisense technology is the ability to manipulate gene expression within mammalian cells providing powerful experimental approaches for the study of gene function and gene regulation. For example, methods which inhibit gene expression permit studies probing the normal function of a specific product within a cell. Such methodology can be used in many disciplines such as pharmacology, oncology, genetics, cell biology, developmental biology, molecular biology, biochemistry, and neurosciences. This volume will be a truly important tool in biomedically-oriented research. The critically acclaimed laboratory standard for more than forty years, Methods in Enzymology is one of the most highly respected publications in the field of biochemistry. Since 1955, each volume has been eagerly awaited, frequently consulted, and praised by researchers and reviewers alike. Now with more than 300 volumes (all of them still in print), the series contains much material still relevant today-truly an essential publication for researchers in all fields of life sciences.

Cancer Gene Therapy

Cancer Gene Therapy PDF Author: David T. Curiel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1592597858
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 490

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Book Description
A complete introduction and guide to the latest developments in cancer gene therapy-from bench to bedside. The authors comprehensively review the anticancer genes and gene delivery methods currently available for cancer gene therapy, including the transfer of genetic material into the cancer cells, stimulation of the immune system to recognize and eliminate cancer cells, and the targeting of the nonmalignant stromal cells that support their growth. They also thoroughly examine the advantages and limitations of the different therapies and detail strategies to overcome obstacles to their clinical implementation. Topics of special interest include vector-targeting techniques, the lessons learned to date from clinical trials of cancer gene therapy, and the regulatory guidelines for future trials. Noninvasive techniques to monitor the extent of gene transfer and disease regression during the course of treatment are also discussed.

Toll and Toll-Like Receptors:

Toll and Toll-Like Receptors: PDF Author: Tina Rich
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387274456
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 218

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Book Description
Toll Receptors and the Renaissance of Innate Immunity Elizabeth H. Bassett and Tina Rich Overview n the last few pages of Immunology: The Science of Self-Nonself Discrimination Jan Klein ponders on what he would study if he were to start over in the lab. ^ Dismissing the I antibody, MHC, the T-cell and parasitology, he considers instead the phylogeny of immune reactions, particularly in ancient phyla. As for a favored cell he chooses the macrophage. Describ ing it as a ^^MddchenfUr alles," (all purpose kitchen maid) Klein believed that this immunocyte still had secrets to reveal. Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) biology would prove to be one of these secrets. Analyses of the evolution of these receptors (Tolls and TLRs) have also helped us to rethink immune system phylogeny. In the first part of this chapter the history of the discovery of Toll and TLR biology is described. The evolution of the TLR genes and theories of immune function are covered in later sections. The remainder of this book presents work from nine groups active in the field. In the first chapter, "The Function of Toll-Like Receptors", Zlatko Dembic sets the stage by introducing us to many of the components of the immune system and their relationships vis a vis Toll receptors. Zlatko finishes his chapter with a discussion about current immune system models and contributes his own 'integrity model'. Work from the laboratory of Nicholas Gay follows this in "Structures and Motifs Involved in Toll Signaling".

Nuclease Methods and Protocols

Nuclease Methods and Protocols PDF Author: Catherine H. Schein
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1592592333
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 525

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Book Description
Nucleases, enzymes that restructure or degrade nucleic acid polymers, are vital to the control of every area of metabolism. They range from “housekeeping” enzymes with broad substrate ranges to extremely specific tools (1). Many types of nucleases are used in lab protocols, and their commercial and clinical uses are expanding. The purpose of Nuclease Methods and Protocols is to introduce the reader to some we- characterized protein nucleases, and the methods used to determine their activity, structure, interaction with other molecules, and physiological role. Each chapter begins with a mini-review on a specific nuclease or a nuclease-related theme. Although many chapters cover several topics, they were arbitrarily divided into five parts: Part I, “Characterizing Nuclease Activity,” includes protocols and assays to determine general (processive, distributive) or specific mechanisms. Methods to assay nuclease products, identify cloned nucleases, and determine their physiological role are also included here. Part II, “Inhibitors and Activators of Nucleases,” summarizes assays for measuring the effects of other proteins and small molecules. Many of these inhibitors have clinical relevance. Part III, “Relating Nuclease Structure and Function,” provides an overview of methods to determine or model the 3-D structure of nucleases and their complexes with substrates and inhibitors. A 3-D structure can greatly aid the rational design of nucleases and inhibitors for specific purposes. Part IV, “Nucleases in the Clinic,” summarizes assays and protocols suitable for use with t- sues and for nuclease based therapeutics.