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Parallel Processing, 1980 to 2020

Parallel Processing, 1980 to 2020 PDF Author: Robert Kuhn
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3031017684
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 166

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Book Description
This historical survey of parallel processing from 1980 to 2020 is a follow-up to the authors’ 1981 Tutorial on Parallel Processing, which covered the state of the art in hardware, programming languages, and applications. Here, we cover the evolution of the field since 1980 in: parallel computers, ranging from the Cyber 205 to clusters now approaching an exaflop, to multicore microprocessors, and Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) in commodity personal devices; parallel programming notations such as OpenMP, MPI message passing, and CUDA streaming notation; and seven parallel applications, such as finite element analysis and computer vision. Some things that looked like they would be major trends in 1981, such as big Single Instruction Multiple Data arrays disappeared for some time but have been revived recently in deep neural network processors. There are now major trends that did not exist in 1980, such as GPUs, distributed memory machines, and parallel processing in nearly every commodity device. This book is intended for those that already have some knowledge of parallel processing today and want to learn about the history of the three areas. In parallel hardware, every major parallel architecture type from 1980 has scaled-up in performance and scaled-out into commodity microprocessors and GPUs, so that every personal and embedded device is a parallel processor. There has been a confluence of parallel architecture types into hybrid parallel systems. Much of the impetus for change has been Moore’s Law, but as clock speed increases have stopped and feature size decreases have slowed down, there has been increased demand on parallel processing to continue performance gains. In programming notations and compilers, we observe that the roots of today’s programming notations existed before 1980. And that, through a great deal of research, the most widely used programming notations today, although the result of much broadening of these roots, remain close to target system architectures allowing the programmer to almost explicitly use the target’s parallelism to the best of their ability. The parallel versions of applications directly or indirectly impact nearly everyone, computer expert or not, and parallelism has brought about major breakthroughs in numerous application areas. Seven parallel applications are studied in this book.

Parallel Processing, 1980 to 2020

Parallel Processing, 1980 to 2020 PDF Author: Robert Kuhn
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3031017684
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 166

View

Book Description
This historical survey of parallel processing from 1980 to 2020 is a follow-up to the authors’ 1981 Tutorial on Parallel Processing, which covered the state of the art in hardware, programming languages, and applications. Here, we cover the evolution of the field since 1980 in: parallel computers, ranging from the Cyber 205 to clusters now approaching an exaflop, to multicore microprocessors, and Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) in commodity personal devices; parallel programming notations such as OpenMP, MPI message passing, and CUDA streaming notation; and seven parallel applications, such as finite element analysis and computer vision. Some things that looked like they would be major trends in 1981, such as big Single Instruction Multiple Data arrays disappeared for some time but have been revived recently in deep neural network processors. There are now major trends that did not exist in 1980, such as GPUs, distributed memory machines, and parallel processing in nearly every commodity device. This book is intended for those that already have some knowledge of parallel processing today and want to learn about the history of the three areas. In parallel hardware, every major parallel architecture type from 1980 has scaled-up in performance and scaled-out into commodity microprocessors and GPUs, so that every personal and embedded device is a parallel processor. There has been a confluence of parallel architecture types into hybrid parallel systems. Much of the impetus for change has been Moore’s Law, but as clock speed increases have stopped and feature size decreases have slowed down, there has been increased demand on parallel processing to continue performance gains. In programming notations and compilers, we observe that the roots of today’s programming notations existed before 1980. And that, through a great deal of research, the most widely used programming notations today, although the result of much broadening of these roots, remain close to target system architectures allowing the programmer to almost explicitly use the target’s parallelism to the best of their ability. The parallel versions of applications directly or indirectly impact nearly everyone, computer expert or not, and parallelism has brought about major breakthroughs in numerous application areas. Seven parallel applications are studied in this book.

Parallel Processing, 1980 to 2020

Parallel Processing, 1980 to 2020 PDF Author: Robert Kuhn
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783031006401
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 166

View

Book Description
This historical survey of parallel processing from 1980 to 2020 is a follow-up to the authors’ 1981 Tutorial on Parallel Processing, which covered the state of the art in hardware, programming languages, and applications. Here, we cover the evolution of the field since 1980 in: parallel computers, ranging from the Cyber 205 to clusters now approaching an exaflop, to multicore microprocessors, and Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) in commodity personal devices; parallel programming notations such as OpenMP, MPI message passing, and CUDA streaming notation; and seven parallel applications, such as finite element analysis and computer vision. Some things that looked like they would be major trends in 1981, such as big Single Instruction Multiple Data arrays disappeared for some time but have been revived recently in deep neural network processors. There are now major trends that did not exist in 1980, such as GPUs, distributed memory machines, and parallel processing in nearly every commodity device. This book is intended for those that already have some knowledge of parallel processing today and want to learn about the history of the three areas. In parallel hardware, every major parallel architecture type from 1980 has scaled-up in performance and scaled-out into commodity microprocessors and GPUs, so that every personal and embedded device is a parallel processor. There has been a confluence of parallel architecture types into hybrid parallel systems. Much of the impetus for change has been Moore’s Law, but as clock speed increases have stopped and feature size decreases have slowed down, there has been increased demand on parallel processing to continue performance gains. In programming notations and compilers, we observe that the roots of today’s programming notations existed before 1980. And that, through a great deal of research, the most widely used programming notations today, although the result of much broadening of these roots, remain close to target system architectures allowing the programmer to almost explicitly use the target’s parallelism to the best of their ability. The parallel versions of applications directly or indirectly impact nearly everyone, computer expert or not, and parallelism has brought about major breakthroughs in numerous application areas. Seven parallel applications are studied in this book.

Robotic Computing on FPGAs

Robotic Computing on FPGAs PDF Author: Shaoshan Liu
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3031017714
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 202

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Book Description
This book provides a thorough overview of the state-of-the-art field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based robotic computing accelerator designs and summarizes their adopted optimized techniques. This book consists of ten chapters, delving into the details of how FPGAs have been utilized in robotic perception, localization, planning, and multi-robot collaboration tasks. In addition to individual robotic tasks, this book provides detailed descriptions of how FPGAs have been used in robotic products, including commercial autonomous vehicles and space exploration robots.

In-/Near-Memory Computing

In-/Near-Memory Computing PDF Author: Daichi Fujiki
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3031017722
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 124

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Book Description
This book provides a structured introduction of the key concepts and techniques that enable in-/near-memory computing. For decades, processing-in-memory or near-memory computing has been attracting growing interest due to its potential to break the memory wall. Near-memory computing moves compute logic near the memory, and thereby reduces data movement. Recent work has also shown that certain memories can morph themselves into compute units by exploiting the physical properties of the memory cells, enabling in-situ computing in the memory array. While in- and near-memory computing can circumvent overheads related to data movement, it comes at the cost of restricted flexibility of data representation and computation, design challenges of compute capable memories, and difficulty in system and software integration. Therefore, wide deployment of in-/near-memory computing cannot be accomplished without techniques that enable efficient mapping of data-intensive applications to such devices, without sacrificing accuracy or increasing hardware costs excessively. This book describes various memory substrates amenable to in- and near-memory computing, architectural approaches for designing efficient and reliable computing devices, and opportunities for in-/near-memory acceleration of different classes of applications.

Deep Learning Systems

Deep Learning Systems PDF Author: Andres Rodriguez
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3031017692
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 245

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Book Description
This book describes deep learning systems: the algorithms, compilers, and processor components to efficiently train and deploy deep learning models for commercial applications. The exponential growth in computational power is slowing at a time when the amount of compute consumed by state-of-the-art deep learning (DL) workloads is rapidly growing. Model size, serving latency, and power constraints are a significant challenge in the deployment of DL models for many applications. Therefore, it is imperative to codesign algorithms, compilers, and hardware to accelerate advances in this field with holistic system-level and algorithm solutions that improve performance, power, and efficiency. Advancing DL systems generally involves three types of engineers: (1) data scientists that utilize and develop DL algorithms in partnership with domain experts, such as medical, economic, or climate scientists; (2) hardware designers that develop specialized hardware to accelerate the components in the DL models; and (3) performance and compiler engineers that optimize software to run more efficiently on a given hardware. Hardware engineers should be aware of the characteristics and components of production and academic models likely to be adopted by industry to guide design decisions impacting future hardware. Data scientists should be aware of deployment platform constraints when designing models. Performance engineers should support optimizations across diverse models, libraries, and hardware targets. The purpose of this book is to provide a solid understanding of (1) the design, training, and applications of DL algorithms in industry; (2) the compiler techniques to map deep learning code to hardware targets; and (3) the critical hardware features that accelerate DL systems. This book aims to facilitate co-innovation for the advancement of DL systems. It is written for engineers working in one or more of these areas who seek to understand the entire system stack in order to better collaborate with engineers working in other parts of the system stack. The book details advancements and adoption of DL models in industry, explains the training and deployment process, describes the essential hardware architectural features needed for today's and future models, and details advances in DL compilers to efficiently execute algorithms across various hardware targets. Unique in this book is the holistic exposition of the entire DL system stack, the emphasis on commercial applications, and the practical techniques to design models and accelerate their performance. The author is fortunate to work with hardware, software, data scientist, and research teams across many high-technology companies with hyperscale data centers. These companies employ many of the examples and methods provided throughout the book.

AI for Computer Architecture

AI for Computer Architecture PDF Author: Lizhong Chen
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3031017706
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 124

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Book Description
Artificial intelligence has already enabled pivotal advances in diverse fields, yet its impact on computer architecture has only just begun. In particular, recent work has explored broader application to the design, optimization, and simulation of computer architecture. Notably, machine-learning-based strategies often surpass prior state-of-the-art analytical, heuristic, and human-expert approaches. This book reviews the application of machine learning in system-wide simulation and run-time optimization, and in many individual components such as caches/memories, branch predictors, networks-on-chip, and GPUs. The book further analyzes current practice to highlight useful design strategies and identify areas for future work, based on optimized implementation strategies, opportune extensions to existing work, and ambitious long term possibilities. Taken together, these strategies and techniques present a promising future for increasingly automated computer architecture designs.

A Primer on Memory Persistency

A Primer on Memory Persistency PDF Author: Gogte Vaibhav
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 303179205X
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 95

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Book Description
This book introduces readers to emerging persistent memory (PM) technologies that promise the performance of dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) with the durability of traditional storage media, such as hard disks and solid-state drives (SSDs). Persistent memories (PMs), such as Intel's Optane DC persistent memories, are commercially available today. Unlike traditional storage devices, PMs can be accessed over a byte-addressable load-store interface with access latency that is comparable to DRAM. Unfortunately, existing hardware and software systems are ill-equipped to fully avail the potential of these byte-addressable memory technologies as they have been designed to access traditional storage media over a block-based interface. Several mechanisms have been explored in the research literature over the past decade to design hardware and software systems that provide high-performance access to PMs.Because PMs are durable, they can retain data across failures, such as power failures and program crashes. Upon a failure, recovery mechanisms may inspect PM data, reconstruct state and resume program execution. Correct recovery of data requires that operations to the PM are properly ordered during normal program execution. Memory persistency models define the order in which memory operations are performed at the PM. Much like memory consistency models, memory persistency models may be relaxed to improve application performance. Several proposals have emerged recently to design memory persistency models for hardware and software systems and for high-level programming languages. These proposals differ in several key aspects; they relax PM ordering constraints, introduce varying programmability burden, and introduce differing granularity of failure atomicity for PM operations.This primer provides a detailed overview of the various classes of the memory persistency models, their implementations in hardware, programming languages and software systems proposed in the recent research literature, and the PM ordering techniques employed by modern processors.

Advances in Languages and Compilers for Parallel Processing

Advances in Languages and Compilers for Parallel Processing PDF Author: Alexandru Nicolau
Publisher: Mit Press
ISBN:
Category : Compilers (Computer programs)
Languages : en
Pages : 488

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Book Description
Mathematics of Computing -- Parallelism.

Federal Republic of Nigeria Vision 20:2020 Science and Technology Sub-Committee

Federal Republic of Nigeria Vision 20:2020 Science and Technology Sub-Committee PDF Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Economic development
Languages : en
Pages : 128

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Book Description


Proceedings of the 1990 International Conference on Parallel Processing

Proceedings of the 1990 International Conference on Parallel Processing PDF Author: Benjamin W. Wah
Publisher: Penn State University Press
ISBN:
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 352

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Book Description
The field of parallel processing is maturing into a strong, diverse, and highly international area of study. For the 1990 conference, the eighteenth to be held, over 500 papers were submitted by authors from 28 countries. These three volumes make available the 256 papers that were accepted after a rigorous process of review. The overall variety and currency of issues addressed by the collection will make these volumes of vital interest to engineers, scientists, programmers, systems analysts, managers, and other involved in the theory, design, and application of parallel processing.