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Stochastic Computing: Techniques and Applications

Stochastic Computing: Techniques and Applications PDF Author: Warren J. Gross
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3030037304
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 215

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Book Description
This book covers the history and recent developments of stochastic computing. Stochastic computing (SC) was first introduced in the 1960s for logic circuit design, but its origin can be traced back to von Neumann's work on probabilistic logic. In SC, real numbers are encoded by random binary bit streams, and information is carried on the statistics of the binary streams. SC offers advantages such as hardware simplicity and fault tolerance. Its promise in data processing has been shown in applications including neural computation, decoding of error-correcting codes, image processing, spectral transforms and reliability analysis. There are three main parts to this book. The first part, comprising Chapters 1 and 2, provides a history of the technical developments in stochastic computing and a tutorial overview of the field for both novice and seasoned stochastic computing researchers. In the second part, comprising Chapters 3 to 8, we review both well-established and emerging design approaches for stochastic computing systems, with a focus on accuracy, correlation, sequence generation, and synthesis. The last part, comprising Chapters 9 and 10, provides insights into applications in machine learning and error-control coding.

Stochastic Computing: Techniques and Applications

Stochastic Computing: Techniques and Applications PDF Author: Warren J. Gross
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3030037304
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 215

View

Book Description
This book covers the history and recent developments of stochastic computing. Stochastic computing (SC) was first introduced in the 1960s for logic circuit design, but its origin can be traced back to von Neumann's work on probabilistic logic. In SC, real numbers are encoded by random binary bit streams, and information is carried on the statistics of the binary streams. SC offers advantages such as hardware simplicity and fault tolerance. Its promise in data processing has been shown in applications including neural computation, decoding of error-correcting codes, image processing, spectral transforms and reliability analysis. There are three main parts to this book. The first part, comprising Chapters 1 and 2, provides a history of the technical developments in stochastic computing and a tutorial overview of the field for both novice and seasoned stochastic computing researchers. In the second part, comprising Chapters 3 to 8, we review both well-established and emerging design approaches for stochastic computing systems, with a focus on accuracy, correlation, sequence generation, and synthesis. The last part, comprising Chapters 9 and 10, provides insights into applications in machine learning and error-control coding.

Systematic Design of Low-power Processing Elements Using Stochastic and Approximate Computing Techniques

Systematic Design of Low-power Processing Elements Using Stochastic and Approximate Computing Techniques PDF Author: Ardalan Najafi
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :

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Book Description
The approximate and stochastic computing have been developed, on the one hand, to address the diminishing gains of technology scaling, and on the other hand, to exploit the intrinsic error resilience of many applications. They, indeed, take advantage of the disparity between the level of accuracy required by the application and that provided by the computing system, for achieving energy efficiency. As of the most important constitutes of an integrated circuit, arithmetic units often lie within the critical path of a processing system. They play a vital role in determining the performance and power consumption of the computing system. In the past decade, the design of the approximate arithmetic units has been in the center of attentions of the VLSI design research community; resulting in a numerous proposed approximate designs in the literature. In spite of a decade work on the approximate computing, there are still unresolved challenges faced by digital designers. The concept of acceptable quality of the results forms the foundation of the approximate and stochastic computing. In view of this fact, it is crucially decisive to have a clear, quantifiable definition of what signifies an acceptable quality. Indeed, the current metrics most often do not capture the requirements of a target application, and hence, mislead to sub-optimal design options for the application. Moreover, non-systematic designs, lack of fair comparisons and reproducible research have resulted in somewhat limited progresses in the field of approximate and stochastic computing. Besides, the accuracy requirements of an application is not a static property and may change across the different phases of the application. Therefore, it is important to systematically develop approximate and stochastic computing platforms which offer a variety of output qualities. In this dissertation, the aim is to take fundamental steps towards resolving the aforementioned challenges. Correspondingly, the following contributions are made in this dissertation. First, to palliate the lack of expressiveness of current metrics, a new parameterizable metric which correlates more precisely to the accuracy of the applications is proposed in this dissertation. Afterwards, the importance of fair comparisons for approximate computing units is underlined in this work. Subsequently, through generalizing and systematically optimizing an architectural template for approximate adders, an architecture is proposed which outperforms its existing counterparts. A conceptual framework for the systematic design of approximate adders including hybrid and non-equally segmented approaches is developed next. The framework discriminates the scenarios where approximate processing does not provide significant benefits from those where it does; in this latter case, it aids in obtaining optimal configurations for the adders. Furthermore, in order to address the dynamic configuration of the error characteristics, a stochastically-tunable adder is proposed which reduces the energy-delay product considerably in comparison with its conventional counterpart. In addition, we develop data-dependent corrections for truncated multipliers, where the proposed architectures surpass the existing approximate multipliers in the literature. The applicability of the proposed methods, and in general approximate computing units is eventually studied in modern applications. The correlation between the errors of a single unit and the whole system's accuracy is also investigated in the applications.

Field-Programmable Logic and Applications: The Roadmap to Reconfigurable Computing

Field-Programmable Logic and Applications: The Roadmap to Reconfigurable Computing PDF Author: Reiner W. Hartenstein
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3540446141
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 858

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Book Description
This book is the proceedings volume of the 10th International Conference on Field Programmable Logic and its Applications (FPL), held August 27 30, 2000 in Villach, Austria, which covered areas like reconfigurable logic (RL), reconfigurable computing (RC), and its applications, and all other aspects. Its subtitle "The Roadmap to Reconfigurable Computing" reminds us, that we are currently witnessing the runaway of a breakthrough. The annual FPL series is the eldest international conference in the world covering configware and all its aspects. It was founded 1991 at Oxford University (UK) and is 2 years older than its two most important competitors usually taking place at Monterey and Napa. FPL has been held at Oxford, Vienna, Prague, Darmstadt, London, Tallinn, and Glasgow (also see: http://www. fpl. uni kl. de/FPL/). The New Case for Reconfigurable Platforms: Converging Media. Indicated by palmtops, smart mobile phones, many other portables, and consumer electronics, media such as voice, sound, video, TV, wireless, cable, telephone, and Internet continue to converge. This creates new opportunities and even necessities for reconfigurable platform usage. The new converged media require high volume, flexible, multi purpose, multi standard, low power products adaptable to support evolving standards, emerging new standards, field upgrades, bug fixes, and, to meet the needs of a growing number of different kinds of services offered to zillions of individual subscribers preferring different media mixes.

Computing Technologies and Applications

Computing Technologies and Applications PDF Author: Latesh Malik
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1000473503
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 358

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Book Description
Making use of digital technology for social care is a major responsibility of the computing domain. Social care services require attention for ease in social systems, e-farming, and automation, etc. Thus, the book focuses on suggesting software solutions for supporting social issues, such as health care, learning about and monitoring for disabilities, and providing technical solutions for better living. Technology is enabling people to have access to advances so that they can have better health. To undergo the digital transformation, the current processes need to be completely re-engineered to make use of technologies like the Internet of Things (IoT), big data analytics, artificial intelligence, and others. Furthermore, it is also important to consider digital initiatives in tandem with their cloud strategy instead of treating them in isolation. At present, the world is going through another, possibly even stronger revolution: the use of recent computing models to perform complex cognitive tasks to solve social problems in ways that were previously either highly complicated or extremely resource intensive. This book not only focuses the computing technologies, basic theories, challenges, and implementation but also covers case studies. It focuses on core theories, architectures, and technologies necessary to develop and understand the computing models and their applications. The book also has a high potential to be used as a recommended textbook for research scholars and post-graduate programs. The book deals with a problem-solving approach using recent tools and technology for problems in health care, social care, etc. Interdisciplinary studies are emerging as both necessary and practical in universities. This book helps to improve computational thinking to "understand and change the world’. It will be a link between computing and a variety of other fields. Case studies on social aspects of modern societies and smart cities add to the contents of the book to enhance book adoption potential. This book will be useful to undergraduates, postgraduates, researchers, and industry professionals. Every chapter covers one possible solution in detail, along with results.

Trends and Applications in Software Engineering

Trends and Applications in Software Engineering PDF Author: Jezreel Mejia
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319485237
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 294

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Book Description
This book offers a selection of papers from the 2016 International Conference on Software Process Improvement (CIMPS’16), held between the 12th and 14th of October 2016 in Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, México. The CIMPS’16 is a global forum for researchers and practitioners to present and discuss the most recent innovations, trends, results, experiences and concerns in the different aspects of software engineering with a focus on, but not limited to, software processes, security in information and communication technology, and big data. The main topics covered include: organizational models, standards and methodologies, knowledge management, software systems, applications and tools, information and communication technologies and processes in non-software domains (mining, automotive, aerospace, business, health care, manufacturing, etc.) with a clear focus on software process challenges.

Computer Literature Bibliography: 1964-1967

Computer Literature Bibliography: 1964-1967 PDF Author: W. W. Youden
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages :

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Signal Processing, Theories and Applications

Signal Processing, Theories and Applications PDF Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Signal processing
Languages : en
Pages :

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NBS Special Publication

NBS Special Publication PDF Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Weights and measures
Languages : en
Pages :

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Towards Practical Stochastic Computing Architectures for Emerging Applications

Towards Practical Stochastic Computing Architectures for Emerging Applications PDF Author: Vincent T. Lee
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 148

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Book Description
The end of Dennard scaling and demands for energy efficient, low power, and high density computing solutions over the past decade has forced exploration of new computing technologies. Stochastic computing is one of these alternative computing technologies which has enjoyed renewed interest and is the primary focus of this dissertation. Stochastic computing is a form of approximate computing which encodes values as probabilistic bitstreams where the ratio of 1s and 0s determines the encoded value. This representation allows stochastic computing to achieve lower operating power, higher computational density, and better error resilience compared to conventional binary-encoded circuits. In its current form, stochastic computing presents a number of challenges before it can become a practical replacement for conventional binary-encoded computing. First, there is little prior work detailing design methodologies to guide effective implementation and integration of stochastic computing into accelerator architectures. Second, the application space where stochastic computing yields compelling gains is far from obvious and has only seen limited exploration. Third, stochastic arithmetic circuits are unintuitive to design because they require careful consideration of correlation and quantization effects. This thesis focuses on new circuit components, applications, architectural considerations, and design techniques to improve the practicality of stochastic computing accelerators. I first propose novel stochastic circuits to improve the accuracy of stochastic computations and augment the range of implementable functions. I then evaluate the viability of stochastic computing with a design space exploration of end-to-end stochastic computing accelerator architectures. In this exploration, I evaluate under what design parameters and conditions stochastic computing accelerators are competitive alternatives to their binary-encoded counterparts. Using these guidelines, I use these results to establish a set of architecture design guidelines to help designers identify when and why they should consider stochastic computing. I then evaluate codesign opportunities and empirically measuring power, area, and energy efficiency for emerging applications. I also propose borrowing techniques from program synthesis such as stochastic synthesis and mixed integer linear programming to automatically synthesize novel stochastic circuits. Finally, I conclude with future directions for further improving the practicality of stochastic computing as well as additional research directions beyond stochastic computing.

Publications Combined - Over 100 Studies In Nanotechnology With Medical, Military And Industrial Applications 2008-2017

Publications Combined - Over 100 Studies In Nanotechnology With Medical, Military And Industrial Applications 2008-2017 PDF Author:
Publisher: Jeffrey Frank Jones
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 7322

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Book Description
Over 7,300 total pages ... Just a sample of the contents: Title : Multifunctional Nanotechnology Research Descriptive Note : Technical Report,01 Jan 2015,31 Jan 2016 Title : Preparation of Solvent-Dispersible Graphene and its Application to Nanocomposites Descriptive Note : Technical Report Title : Improvements To Micro Contact Performance And Reliability Descriptive Note : Technical Report Title : Delivery of Nanotethered Therapies to Brain Metastases of Primary Breast Cancer Using a Cellular Trojan Horse Descriptive Note : Technical Report,15 Sep 2013,14 Sep 2016 Title : Nanotechnology-Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer Descriptive Note : Technical Report,15 Jul 2016,14 Jul 2017 Title : A Federal Vision for Future Computing: A Nanotechnology-Inspired Grand Challenge Descriptive Note : Technical Report Title : Quantifying Nanoparticle Release from Nanotechnology: Scientific Operating Procedure Series: SOP C 3 Descriptive Note : Technical Report Title : Synthesis, Characterization And Modeling Of Functionally Graded Multifunctional Hybrid Composites For Extreme Environments Descriptive Note : Technical Report,15 Sep 2009,14 Mar 2015 Title : Equilibrium Structures and Absorption Spectra for SixOy Molecular Clusters using Density Functional Theory Descriptive Note : Technical Report Title : Nanotechnology for the Solid Waste Reduction of Military Food Packaging Descriptive Note : Technical Report,01 Apr 2008,01 Jan 2015 Title : Magneto-Electric Conversion of Optical Energy to Electricity Descriptive Note : Final performance rept. 1 Apr 2012-31 Mar 2015 Title : Surface Area Analysis Using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) Method: Standard Operating Procedure Series: SOP-C Descriptive Note : Technical Report,30 Sep 2015,30 Sep 2016 Title : Stabilizing Protein Effects on the Pressure Sensitivity of Fluorescent Gold Nanoclusters Descriptive Note : Technical Report Title : Theory-Guided Innovation of Noncarbon Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials Descriptive Note : Technical Report,14 Feb 2012,14 Feb 2016 Title : Deterring Emergent Technologies Descriptive Note : Journal Article Title : The Human Domain and the Future of Army Warfare: Present as Prelude to 2050 Descriptive Note : Technical Report Title : Drone Swarms Descriptive Note : Technical Report,06 Jul 2016,25 May 2017 Title : OFFSETTING TOMORROW'S ADVERSARY IN A CONTESTED ENVIRONMENT: DEFENDING EXPEDITIONARY ADVANCE BASES IN 2025 AND BEYOND Descriptive Note : Technical Report Title : A Self Sustaining Solar-Bio-Nano Based Wastewater Treatment System for Forward Operating Bases Descriptive Note : Technical Report,01 Feb 2012,31 Aug 2017 Title : Radiation Hard and Self Healing Substrate Agnostic Nanocrystalline ZnO Thin Film Electronics Descriptive Note : Technical Report,26 Sep 2011,25 Sep 2015 Title : Modeling and Experiments with Carbon Nanotubes for Applications in High Performance Circuits Descriptive Note : Technical Report Title : Radiation Hard and Self Healing Substrate Agnostic Nanocrystalline ZnO Thin Film Electronics (Per5 E) Descriptive Note : Technical Report,01 Oct 2011,28 Jun 2017 Title : High Thermal Conductivity Carbon Nanomaterials for Improved Thermal Management in Armament Composites Descriptive Note : Technical Report Title : Emerging Science and Technology Trends: 2017-2047 Descriptive Note : Technical Report Title : Catalysts for Lightweight Solar Fuels Generation Descriptive Note : Technical Report,01 Feb 2013,31 Jan 2017 Title : Integrated Real-Time Control and Imaging System for Microbiorobotics and Nanobiostructures Descriptive Note : Technical Report,01 Aug 2013,31 Jul 2014