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Twentieth century ethics of human subjects research

Twentieth century ethics of human subjects research PDF Author: Volker Roelcke
Publisher: Franz Steiner Verlag
ISBN: 9783515084550
Category : Medical
Languages : de
Pages : 370

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Book Description
Debates on the ethics of human subjects research meet with an increasing interest both within the medical profession and the broader public. Frequently, historical arguments are used to propagate or attack certain positions within these debates. However, there is a tendency to oversimplify the complexities of the past for present day purposes, and at the same time a lack of awareness of the historical dimension implicit in today's value preferences. Twentieth Century Ethics of Human Subjects Research brings together leading historians of medicine to reconstruct and analyse the history of actual experimental practices, the debates on human subjects research, and the attempts to regulate such research during the twentieth century. The volume addresses cases of medical research in France, Britain, Israel, the United States, and Germany, including the Nazi period; the major developments of ethical debates in these and further national contexts, such as the Soviet Union, the Czech Republic, and Japan. It also explores religious views (Catholic, Jewish) on human experimentation, and the origins and contexts of international codes and declarations. "Volker Roelckes Uberblick uber die Geschichte der Menschenversuche im Dritten Reich sei jedem empfohlen, der sich kurz und pragnant uber dieses dustere Kapitel deutscher Geschichte informieren mochte." FAZ

Twentieth century ethics of human subjects research

Twentieth century ethics of human subjects research PDF Author: Volker Roelcke
Publisher: Franz Steiner Verlag
ISBN: 9783515084550
Category : Medical
Languages : de
Pages : 370

View

Book Description
Debates on the ethics of human subjects research meet with an increasing interest both within the medical profession and the broader public. Frequently, historical arguments are used to propagate or attack certain positions within these debates. However, there is a tendency to oversimplify the complexities of the past for present day purposes, and at the same time a lack of awareness of the historical dimension implicit in today's value preferences. Twentieth Century Ethics of Human Subjects Research brings together leading historians of medicine to reconstruct and analyse the history of actual experimental practices, the debates on human subjects research, and the attempts to regulate such research during the twentieth century. The volume addresses cases of medical research in France, Britain, Israel, the United States, and Germany, including the Nazi period; the major developments of ethical debates in these and further national contexts, such as the Soviet Union, the Czech Republic, and Japan. It also explores religious views (Catholic, Jewish) on human experimentation, and the origins and contexts of international codes and declarations. "Volker Roelckes Uberblick uber die Geschichte der Menschenversuche im Dritten Reich sei jedem empfohlen, der sich kurz und pragnant uber dieses dustere Kapitel deutscher Geschichte informieren mochte." FAZ

Die Deklaration von Helsinki

Die Deklaration von Helsinki PDF Author: Hans-Jörg Ehni
Publisher: Deutscher Ärzteverlag
ISBN: 3769113012
Category : Human experimentation in medicine
Languages : de
Pages : 170

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Pediatric Epidemiology

Pediatric Epidemiology PDF Author: W. Kiess
Publisher: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
ISBN: 3318061239
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 156

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Book Description
Pediatric epidemiology differs substantially from general epidemiology especially when it comes to ethical, developmental and societal aspects. This unique book addresses biological considerations and ethical and legal questions in dealing with pediatric and adolescent populations. Classic topics, such as how to recruit representative samples, how to deal with confounding variables, and how to work with genetic information are the core areas of the book are also in focus. Last but not the least, this volume adds to the current understanding of global trends in occurrence, transmission, and control of epidemic pediatric diseases. This book not only serves as a textbook for epidemiologists, pediatricians, geneticists, and child and public health specialists but is also a key reference for those embarking on pediatric cohort studies and epidemiological studies involving the pediatric population.

Ethics of Human Subject Research

Ethics of Human Subject Research PDF Author: Allan J. Kimmel
Publisher: Jossey-Bass Incorporated Pub
ISBN:
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 106

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The SAGE Encyclopedia of Pharmacology and Society

The SAGE Encyclopedia of Pharmacology and Society PDF Author: Sarah E. Boslaugh
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1483349993
Category : Health & Fitness
Languages : en
Pages : 1888

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Book Description
The SAGE Encyclopedia of Pharmacology and Society explores the social and policy sides of the pharmaceutical industry and its pervasive influence in society. While many technical STM works explore the chemistry and biology of pharmacology and an equally large number of clinically oriented works focus on use of illegal drugs, substance abuse, and treatment, there is virtually nothing on the immensely huge business (“Big Pharma”) of creating, selling, consuming, and regulating legal drugs. With this new Encyclopedia, the topic of socioeconomic, business and consumer, and legal and ethical issues of the pharmaceutical industry in contemporary society around the world are addressed. Key Features: 800 signed articles, authored by prominent scholars, are arranged A-to-Z and published in a choice of electronic or print formats Although arranged A-to-Z, a Reader's Guide in the front matter groups articles by thematic areas Front matter also includes a Chronology highlighting significant developments in this field All articles conclude with Further Readings and Cross References to related articles Back matter includes an annotated Resource Guide to further research, a Glossary, Appendices (e.g., statistics on the amount and types of drugs prescribed, etc.), and a detailed Index The Index, Reader’s Guide, and Cross References combine for search-and-browse capabilities in the electronic edition The SAGE Encyclopedia of Pharmacology and Society is an authoritative and rigorous source addressing the pharmacology industry and how it influences society, making it a must-have reference for all academic libraries as a source for both students and researchers to utilize.

Ethical Research

Ethical Research PDF Author: Ulf Schmidt
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190224185
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 496

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Book Description
At the heart of research with human beings is the moral notion that the experimental subject is altruistic, and is primarily concerned for the welfare of others. Beneath the surface, however, lies a very different ethical picture. Individuals participating in potentially life-saving research sometimes take on considerable risks to their own well-being. Efforts to safeguard human participants in clinical trials have intensified ever since the first version of the World Medical Association's Declaration of Helsinki (1964) and are now codified in many national and international laws and regulations. However, a comprehensive understanding of how this cornerstone document originated, changed, and functions today does not yet exist in the sphere of human research. Ethical Research brings together the work of leading experts from the fields of bioethics, health and medical law, the medical humanities, biomedicine, the medical sciences, philosophy, and history. Together, they focus on the centrality of the Declaration of Helsinki to the protection of human subjects involved in experimentation in an increasingly complex industry and in the government-funded global research environment. The volume's historical and contemporary perspectives on human research address a series of fundamental questions: Is our current human protection regime adequately equipped to deal with new ethical challenges resulting from advances in high-tech biomedical science? How important has the Declaration been in non-Western regions, for example in Eastern Europe, Africa, China, and South America? Why has the bureaucratization of regulation led to calls to pay greater attention to professional responsibility? Ethical Research offers insight into the way in which philosophy, politics, economics, law, science, culture, and society have shaped, and continue to shape, the ideas and practices of human research.

Ethics by Committee

Ethics by Committee PDF Author: Noortje Jacobs
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226819310
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 305

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Book Description
How liberal democracies in the late twentieth century have sought to resolve public concerns over charged issues in medicine and science. Ethics boards have become obligatory passage points in today’s medical science, and we forget how novel they really are. The use of humans in experiments is an age-old practice that records show goes back to at least the third century BC, and it has been popular as a practice since the early modern period. Yet in most countries around the world, hardly any formal checks and balances existed to govern the communal oversight of experiments involving human subjects until at least the 1960s. Ethics by Committee traces the rise of ethics boards for human experimentation in the second half of the twentieth century. Using the Netherlands as a case study, historian Noortje Jacobs shows how the authority of physicians to make decisions about clinical research in this period gave way in most developed nations to formal mechanisms of communal decision-making that served to regiment the behavior of individual researchers. This historically unprecedented change in scientific governance came out of the growing international wariness of medical research in the decades after World War II and was meant to solidify a new way of reasoning together in liberal democracies about medicine and science. But what reasoning together meant, and who was invited to participate, changed drastically over time. In detailing this history, Jacobs shows that research ethics committees were originally intended not only to make human experimentation more ethical but also to raise its epistemic quality and intensify the use of new clinical research methods. By examining complex negotiations over the appropriate governance of human subjects research, Ethics by Committee is an important contribution to our understanding of the randomized controlled trial and the history of research ethics and bioethics more generally.

Dangerous Medicine

Dangerous Medicine PDF Author: Sydney A. Halpern
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 030025962X
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 304

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Book Description
The untold history of America's mid-twentieth-century program of hepatitis infection research, its scientists' aspirations, and the damage the project caused human subjects From 1942 through 1972, American biomedical researchers deliberately infected people with hepatitis. Government-sponsored researchers were attempting to discover the basic features of the disease and the viruses causing it, and to develop interventions that would quell recurring outbreaks. Drawing from extensive archival research and in-person interviews, Sydney Halpern traces the hepatitis program from its origins in World War II through its expansion during the initial Cold War years, to its demise in the early 1970s amid an outcry over research abuse. The subjects in hepatitis studies were members of stigmatized groups--conscientious objectors, prison inmates, the mentally ill, and developmentally disabled adults and children. The book reveals how researchers invoked military and scientific imperatives and the rhetoric of a common good to win support for the experiments and access to recruits. Halpern examines the participants' long-term health consequences and raises troubling questions about hazardous human experiments aimed at controlling today's epidemic diseases.

The Social Medicine Reader, Volume I, Third Edition

The Social Medicine Reader, Volume I, Third Edition PDF Author: Jonathan Oberlander
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 1478004355
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 472

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Book Description
The extensively updated and revised third edition of the bestselling Social Medicine Reader provides a survey of the challenging issues facing today's health care providers, patients, and caregivers by bringing together moving narratives of illness, commentaries by physicians, debates about complex medical cases, and conceptually and empirically based writings by scholars in medicine, the social sciences, and the humanities. Volume 1, Ethics and Cultures of Biomedicine, contains essays, case studies, narratives, fiction, and poems that focus on the experiences of illness and of clinician-patient relationships. Among other topics the contributors examine the roles and training of professionals alongside the broader cultures of biomedicine; health care; experiences and decisions regarding death, dying, and struggling to live; and particular manifestations of injustice in the broader health system. The Reader is essential reading for all medical students, physicians, and health care providers.

The Oxford Handbook of the History of Medicine

The Oxford Handbook of the History of Medicine PDF Author: Mark Jackson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191617512
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 692

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Book Description
The Oxford Handbook of the History of Medicine celebrates the richness and variety of medical history around the world. In recent decades, the history of medicine has emerged as a rich and mature sub-discipline within history, but the strength of the field has not precluded vigorous debates about methods, themes, and sources. Bringing together over thirty international scholars, this handbook provides a constructive overview of the current state of these debates, and offers new directions for future scholarship. There are three sections: the first explores the methodological challenges and historiographical debates generated by working in particular historical ages; the second explores the history of medicine in specific regions of the world and their medical traditions, and includes discussion of the `global history of medicine'; the final section analyses, from broad chronological and geographical perspectives, both established and emerging historical themes and methodological debates in the history of medicine.